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阅读理解——细节题目考查
考研英语阅读理解大纲考察点
 
具体性含义与概念性含义 
 
具体性含义提问方式
Which of the following statement is true?
 
概念性含义提问方式
By saying “  ” the author means that…
What does the sentence in the first paragraph mean?
The sentence shows that…
 We sometimes hear that essays are an old-fashioned form, that so-and-o is the “last essayist”, but the facts of the marketplace argue quite otherwise. Essays of nearly any kind are
 so much easier than short stories for a writer to sell, so many more see print, it’s strange that though two
 fine anthologies(collections)remain that publish the year’s best stories, no comparable collection exists for
 essays. Such changes in the reading public’s taste aren’t always to the good, needless to say. The art of 
telling stories predated even cave painting, surely; and if we ever find ourselves living in caves again, it(with
 painting and drumming)will be the only art left, after movies, novels, photography, essays, biography, and
 all the rest have gone down the drain—the art to build from.
  Essays, however, hang somewhere on a line between two sturdy poles: this is what I think, 
and this is what I am .Autobiographies which aren’t novels are generally extended essays, indeed. 
A personal essay is like the human voice talking, its order being the mind’s natural flow, instead of a 
systematized outline of ideas. Though more changeable or informal than an article or treatise, somewhere
 it contains a point which is its real center, even if the point couldn’t be uttered in fewer words than the
 essayist has used. Essays don’t usually boil down to a summary, as articles do, and the style of the 
writer has a “nap” to it, a combination of personality and originality and energetic loose ends that stand
 up like the nap(绒毛)on a piece of wool and can’t be brushed flat. Essays belong to the animal kingdom, 
with a surface 
that generates sparks, like a coat of fur, compared with the flat, conventional cotton of the magazine
 article writer, who works in the vegetable kingdom, Instead. But, essays, on the other hand, may have
 fewer “levels” than fiction, because we are not supposed to argue much about their meaning. In the old
 distinction between teaching and storytelling, the essayist, however cleverly he tries to conceal his 
intentions, is a bit of a teacher or reformer, and an essay is intended to convey the same point to each
 of us.
  An essayist doesn’t have to tell the whole truth and nothing but the truth; he can shape or shave his 
memories, as long as the purpose is served of explaining a truthful point. A personal essay frequently
 is not autobiographical at all, but what it does keep in common with autobiography is that, through its
 tone and tumbling progression, it conveys the quality of the author’s mind. Nothing gets in the way. 
Because essays are directly concerned with the mind and the mind’s peculiarity, the very freedom the 
mind possesses is conferred on this branch of literature that does honor to it, and the fascination of the
 mind is the fascination of the essay.
31. The author asserts that the changes in readers’taste
A.contribute to the incompatibility of essays with stories. 
B.often result in unfavorable effect, to say the least.
C. sometimes come to something undesirable, of course.
D. usually bring about beneficial outcome, so to say.
32. The author suggests that if the Stone Age should come up again
A. the art of essay-writing would lose its foundation.
B. the art and literature would most totally vanish.
C. the art of story-telling would remain in caves alone.
D. the life of art would be thoroughly drained away.
33. Essays are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
A. careful arrangement and organization of chief ideas.
B. remarkable concision and meaningful presentation.
C. improbable condensation to any shorter accounts.
D. flashes of wit and enlightenment of argumentation.
34. What chiefly distinguishes essays from articles may be in
A. the different amount of words used in representation.
B. the acute sensibility and keen insight of essayists.
C. the distinction between animal and vegetable worlds.
D. the variation of arguments about their meanings.
35. The essayists’ main task seems to be
A. the implied revelation and description of the truth.
B. the free depiction and modification of their memories.
C. the frank confession of what is concealed in their mind.
D. the communication of their striking thoughts to readers.
 
答案解析
1.C ——考察大纲中的第二个阅读点:具体信息
 此题对应文章第一自然段第三句:
such changes in the reading public’s taste are not always to the good,
 needless to say 
说明读者兴趣的变化有时会有不好结果
 
干扰选项
A: 造成散文和小说的不相容
原文对应为:对一个作家来说,任何类型的小说都比散文畅销——由此可见,
原文只是将小说与散文作对比
B:至少可以这样说,经常导致不好的结果
D:可以说通常产生有利结果
B,D选项均为原文的反义选项
 
故答案为C
 
 
2. B——考察大纲中的第二个阅读点:具体信息
此题对应第一自然段第四句:
if we ever find ourselves living in caves again, it(with painting and drumming)will be the only art left, 
after movies, novels, photography, essays, biography, and all the rest have gone down the drain—
the art to build from.
have gone down the drain 译为“进入下水道”,转译为“浪费,化为乌有”即消失,
而B选项中“vanish” 含有消失的意思
 
干扰选项
A:散文写作的艺术将失去基础
原文未提及此信息点
C: 讲故事的艺术将只保留在洞穴中
原文采用其比喻意义,因而错误
D:艺术的生命将彻底枯竭
与原文程度不符
 
 
故答案为B
 
 
3. A——考察大纲中的第三个阅读点:概念信息
原文对应为第二自然段第三句:
A personal essay is like the human voice talking, its order being the mind’s natural flow, instead
 of a systematized outline of ideas.
翻译为“一篇散文像一个人用声音在交谈,它的顺序是意识自然流露而不是观念的
系统概述”这说明散文是非精心的布局和观点的组织,而是意识的自然流露
 
 
干扰选项:其它选项的意思在原文中均已出现
 
 
4. B——考察大纲中的第三个阅读点:概念信息
原文对应为第二自然段第五句:
Essays don’t usually boil down to a summary, as articles do, and the style of the writer has a “nap” 
to it, a combination of personality and originality and energetic loose ends that stand up like the 
nap(绒毛)on a piece of wool and can’t be brushed flat.
翻译为:散文与论文不同,他一般不进行归纳总结,而是将作者的个性、独创性和
充满激情的色彩点缀在上面,如同毛线上的绒毛,无法把它刷平
由此可推断出:散文家有个性和敏锐的洞察力
 
 
干扰选项
A:在陈述中用的字数不同
原文对应的是“in few words” 表示的是用精炼的语言
C:动物界和植物界的区别
原文用于比喻意义,指散文好比属于动物王国,而杂志文章作者好像工作在植物王国
D:对它们意义争论的差异
原文指出散文的层次比小说更少一些,因此人们不会过多地辩论其含义
 
故正确答案为B
 
 
5. D ——考察大纲中的第二个阅读点:具体信息
原文对应为最后一段第二句话:it conveys the quality of the author’s mind.
翻译为:表达了作者的思想精髓
 
 
干扰选项
A:含蓄地表达和描述真相
原文对应为“散文与思想有直接联系”
B:坦率地描述和修改他们的记忆
原文对应为“shape or shave”指的是 塑造与修改
C: 坦率表白他们内心的想法
原文对应为“散文作家想掩饰他的意图”
 
 
长难句
The art of telling stories predated even cave painting, surely; and if we ever find ourselves living in 
caves again, it(with painting and drumming)will be the only art left, after movies, novels, photography, 
essays, biography, and all the rest have gone down the drain—the art to build from.
 
 
解析:
a. 主干句为由and引导的2个并列分句:
The art of telling stories predated even cave painting, surely; and…it(with painting and drumming)will
 be the only art left
b. if 引导的条件状语从句
if we ever find ourselves living in caves again
c. after 引导的时间状语从句
after movies, novels, photography, essays, biography, and all the rest have gone down the drain
d. 同位语
the art to build from
 
译文:无疑,讲故事的艺术甚至早于石洞壁画艺术,如果我们重返石器时代,它和绘画,
击鼓将是唯一剩下的艺术形式,而那时,电影,小说,散文,摄影和传记文学,以及其
他所有的艺术形式都不复存在了。
 

(责任编辑:四川大学考研网)
 
(责任编辑:四川大学考研网)
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