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文 彦 考 研

让丨梦想丨有迹可循


作者简介

作者简介:S学姐,2018年以初试复试高分被四川大学外国语学院英语语言文学专业录取。作为本科亦就读于四川大学英文系的地道经验者,目前正在文彦考研积极辅导19年备考本专业的学弟学妹们。

以下内容是S学姐分享,小彦整理。



继上次讲了如何写800字的作文后,本期我们将推出特别篇,关于文彦学员实战练习。


从4月份初开始练习,每周写作量增加50字,慢慢循序渐进,最终在7月份写出不少于800字的评论性文章。

 

我们先来看下需评论的素材。


本期的练习要求200字左右。


如果你也想做本期评论性文章,可以仔细阅读素材,然后写好你的文章,发给后台老师,我会免费帮大家做一个详细的反馈。




本期的评论性素材选自于《华盛顿邮报》。

 

Brexit: Parliament rejects soft Brexit, second referendum

By William Booth and Karla Adam

April 1 at 6:39 PM

LONDON —  British lawmakers, who have earned a global reputation for voting no on everything Brexit, failed again to muster a majority Monday for any of four possible ways forward. 

They rejected two proposals for a “soft” Brexit. They also declined to back a second referendum or cancel Brexit.

The process of staging “indicative votes” was supposed to give the House of Commons control. Instead, Parliament tried to seize the steering wheel from Prime Minister Theresa May — and drove the car into the ditch.

House Speaker John Bercow was asked by the chamber what would happen next.

“I can’t say with any confidence what will happen, and, in that respect, I think I’m frankly not in a minority,” said the loquacious keeper of order.

The focus now turns back again to May and whether she will put her own thrice-rejected Brexit deal to a fourth vote.

The British political class is facing stark choices as the clock ticks. If Parliament now does not back May’s deal, it means that Britain will need to seek a long delay for Brexit or crash out with no deal at all.

Guy Verhofstadt, the European Parliament’s Brexit coordinator, tweeted after the votes that “the U.K. has a last chance to break the deadlock (僵局)or face the abyss.” (面对深渊)

Britain now has nine days — until European leaders meet at an emergency summit in Brussels — to decide how it wants to proceed.

Monday’s votes were all nonbinding, and, although all failed, several were tight.

The closest margin was for a compromise Brexit involving a new customs union with the European Union, failing by three votes. The proposal to require a public vote before any Brexit deal could be ratified(批准) lost by 12. Meanwhile, a proposal for a Norway-like relationship stumbled by 21. The fourth motion, seeking to effectively cancel Brexit, failed by more than a hundred ballots.

Afterward, Nick Boles, the lawmaker pushing for the Norway-like soft Brexit, told Parliament that he was resigning as a member of the Conservative Party. 

“I accept I have failed,” Boles said, his voice breaking, as fellow Tories shouted out, “Don’t do it, Nick!”

“I have failed, chiefly, because my party refuses to compromise,” Boles said. “I regret therefore to announce that I can no longer sit for this party.”

Kenneth Clarke, a senior Conservative lawmaker who had proposed the customs-union alternative, said, “I sometimes think that this particular Parliament that I find myself sitting in is not very political at the moment and it is confounding(混淆) the general public.”

Stephen Barclay, Britain’s Brexit secretary, told the chamber that the best way forward was to support May’s unloved withdrawal agreement.

“If the House were to agree a deal this week it may still be possible to avoid holding European parliamentary elections,” which are held in May, Barclay said. “Cabinet will meet in the morning to consider the results of tonight’s vote and how we should proceed.”

The continued sense of drift down a river toward a waterfall, heard looming in the distance, comes amid signs that the British prime minister has lost control of Brexit, her party and her cabinet.

The Conservative Party is in open revolt. Over the weekend, a bloc of 170 Conservative members, including 10 cabinet ministers, wrote to May demanding that Britain leave the E.U. “with or without a deal,” according to the Sunday Times of London.

Her cabinet, meanwhile, is now staffed by coup plotters and direct competitors. Hard-line Brexiteers and those ministers pushing for a softer Brexit are both threatening to resign if they do not get their way.

The government secretaries have become so unruly that May’s chief whip, Julian Smith, in a rare on-the-record interview with the BBC, described them as the “worst example of ill discipline in cabinet in British political history.”

Smith’s statement was remarkable not only for what he said — but for who said it. 

Chief whips are supposed to be like Victorian children in the extreme, never seen nor heard. They are virtually invisible to the world outside the Palace of Westminster, and their one and only job is to enforce party discipline — in other words, to “whip” their members, via text and WhatsApp group, to vote one way or another.

Smith also said that after the results of the 2017 general election, when the Conservative Party dramatically lost its parliamentary majority, May should have been clear that the result would spell a softer kind of Brexit.

Instead, May made bold speeches and erected red lines.

And yet, May still could get her deal passed. Her supporters say it is likely that the prime minister will try a fourth time to get it through the House of Commons.

Why would lawmakers approve on a fourth vote that which they have rejected three times before? May’s latest threat: If her Conservative members don’t rally around her deal, she will call for a general election.

This appears an empty threat by a weakened party leader, in part because the latest opinion surveys show the opposition Labour Party polling nearly even with the Tories — despite Labour being equally divided between “leavers” and “remainers.” In that environment, it is hard to see Conservatives helping to provide the two-thirds majority required for a general election.

Last week, May said she would step down if her deal finally, somehow, gets over the finish line, thus allowing someone else to take the reins in the second phase of Brexit negotiations. May could be replaced as leader of the government by her party without the need for a general election. 

In no time at all, Boris Johnson, the former foreign secretary and a favorite to replace May as Conservative leader, dropped his opposition and backed May’s deal.

“We need to get Brexit done, because we have so much more to do, and so much more that unites the Conservative party than divides us,” Johnson wrote in Monday’s Daily Telegraph, which sounded to some like a leadership bid. 

“We have so many achievements to be proud of — and yet every single one is being drowned out in the Brexit cacophony(杂音),” Johnson said.

Monday’s “indicative votes” were an effort by Parliament to find alternatives to May’s deal.

One soft-Brexit option included a commitment to remain in a “permanent customs union” with the E.U. — such an arrangement allows those within the union to trade freely without tariffs but sets an external tariff on all goods coming into the bloc. Such a deal would make it hard for Britain to go global and cut its own trade deals abroad, as it would be locked into E.U. tariff regimes. But it could control European immigration.

Another soft-Brexit option was a Norway-style relationship that would involve staying in the E.U. single, or common, market. This path may allow Britain to seek trade deals outside the E.U. but would probably mean that Britain would have to allow free movement of E.U. citizens into Britain.

Some Conservatives remain deeply opposed to these softer Brexits, in part because they see them as “Brexit in name only,” crossing all their red lines — preventing Britain from striking new trade deals with countries such as the United States and China while keeping the borders wide-open to European migrants.

Steve Baker, a Conservative lawmaker and arch(主要的) Brexiteer, is one of those adamantly opposed to these soft-style Brexits. Before the vote, he told the BBC that joining opposition parties and supporting a vote of no confidence in the May government was “on the table” if the government were to adopt this path.

“In what do I take comfort?” asked House Speaker Bercow on Monday after noting that none of the Brexit alternatives tried so far has gotten a majority. He mentioned that Roger Federer won the Miami Open and the Arsenal soccer club triumphed at its last match. “So I just have to content myself with that tonight.”

 

以下是20届文彦学员第一次写作



1. 本评论由20届文彦学员刘同学所写:


2. 本评论由20届文彦学员蔡同学所写:

3. 本评论由20届文彦学员何同学所写

 

这是选取的三个文彦学员的评论文章,第一次写作,其中有一些小的问题存在,但大体的方向和语言的表达还是没有问题的,只是可能在词汇的选择,句型的变换上做得不是最好,但相信在几个月的训练之后,会有很大的提升,让我们拭目以待。

 

写本篇评论的详细攻略:


首先最重要的是读懂本篇文章的大意,或者是中心。


本章在叙述什么事情。这篇关于英国脱欧的文章写道的是:英国议会又一次否定了特蕾莎·梅的脱欧deal. 整片文章都是对这个事实的叙述和各方的反应。


就该事实作出自己的评论,一篇作文就完成了。


我们可以从哪些方面来作出评论呢?


1. 议会为什么会拒绝梅的这个deal,可以联系起前两次拒绝的事实

2. 梅的这个deal被拒绝后,梅如何处理,欧盟方面的反应,以及梅如何应对欧盟。

3. 英国为什么会选择脱欧,结合2016年脱欧公投

4. 英国脱欧后会有什么样的后果,对政治,经济,文化方面会产生什么样的影响。最好详细分析一个方面的影响,毕竟本次只要求200字。

5. 叙述英国脱欧过程事实,做未来欧洲退欧何去何从的预测。(预测不能信口开河,得有理有据)


基本上可以从这几个方面来写这篇文章的评论。


如果是800字,多写1-2个方面基本就完成了。



但第一次写不要给自己太大的压力,从200字慢慢往上加,会轻松很多。所以如果想加入我们每周一起练习,联系后台老师。


如果目前还不想加入,但是想写这篇文章的评论,也可以发给发后台老师,我会一一为大家做一个评论。



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